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conception of a secular movement towards a
single world order. That will be the underlying
permanent objective of all his political life.
There is, however, another line of world
consolidation to which attention must be drawn
before we conclude this section, and is what we
may call ad hoc international systems. The
essential idea of ad hoc internationalism is admir-
ably set forth in Leonard Woolf's International
Government, a classic which was published in
1916 and still makes profitable reading.
The typical ad hoc organisation is the Postal
Union, which David Lubin, that brilliant neg-
lected thinker, would have had extended until it
controlled shipping and equalised freights
throughout the world. He based his ideas upon
;his practical experience of the mail order
Business from which he derived his very con-
$iderable fortune. From that problem of freight
adjustment he passed to the idea of a controlled
survey of world production week by week and
month by month, so that a shortage here or a glut
there could be foreseen and remedied in time.
He realised the idea in the form of the
International Institute of Agriculture at Rome,
which in its heyday made treaties like an inde-
pendent sovereign power for the supply of
returns from nearly every government upon